• Home
  • The Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica

Understanding the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica

Explore the history and impact of the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica, a religious and political movement blending Christianity, mysticism, and pan-African consciousness.

Table of Contents

The Rastafarian movement in Jamaica is a fascinating and culturally rich phenomenon that has significantly shaped the island’s history and identity. Rooted in the teachings of Marcus Garvey and the belief in the divinity of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, Rastafarians in Jamaica have developed a unique religious and cultural identity. From the symbolism of dreadlocks to the spiritual significance of “Jah,” the Rastafari religion embodies a distinctive way of life that has deeply impacted Jamaican society. In this article, we will delve into the beliefs, lifestyle, and origins of the Rastafarian movement, exploring its profound influence on Jamaican culture and history.

What is Rastafarian movement

The Rastafari movement in Jamaica is a cultural and religious movement that emerged in the 1930s, inspired by the teachings of Jamaican activist Marcus Garvey. This movement is heavily influenced by the beliefs of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I, whom Rastafarians revere as the Messiah. With a focus on spiritual and cultural liberation, Rastafarianism promotes the use of marijuana for its sacramental rituals and is known for its distinct reggae music and colorful ganja culture. Today, the Rastafari movement has spread globally, but its roots in Jamaica continue to be a focal point for its practitioners.

How did the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica start?

In the 1930s the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica blossomed from a blend of Marcus Garvey’s Pan-African ideals, the coronation of Emperor Haile Selassie in Ethiopia, and the spiritual teachings of Leonard Howell. Garvey’s vision of a Black king as a redeemer resonated deeply in Jamaica, finding fulfillment in Selassie’s rise to power. Howell, often considered the first Rasta, was instrumental in shaping the movement, intertwining African traditions, Biblical references, and the socio-political context of Jamaica. Evolving beyond political activism, Rastafari emerged as a spiritual and cultural awakening, later gaining global recognition through reggae music and figures like Bob Marley, solidifying its place as a significant cultural and religious movement with deep Jamaican roots.

What does the word Rastafari mean?

The word “Rastafari” originates from the name Ras Tafari Makonnen, who was later crowned as Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. “Ras” is an Ethiopian title meaning “head” or “prince,” and “Tafari Makonnen” was his personal name. The Rastafari movement, which venerates Haile Selassie, adopted this name to reflect its beliefs and values.

What does Rasta Mean in Jamaica?

In Jamaica, “Rasta” refers to Rastafarianism, a religious and cultural movement. It venerates Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as a messianic figure and emphasizes a spiritual connection to Africa as a homeland for people of African descent. The movement, originating in the 1930s, incorporates distinctive cultural practices, such as wearing dreadlocks and adhering to the Ital diet, and is characterized by its use of red, gold, and green colors. Rasta in Jamaica symbolizes a commitment to Pan-Africanism, spiritual awareness, and social transformation.

Key People who contributed to the Rastafarian movement in jamaica

Leonard Howell in the Rise of Rastafarianism

Leonard Howell played a vital role in the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica during the early 20th century. A controversial figure, Howell was the founder of the first Rastafarian community known as Pinnacle. He preached a message of black empowerment, Pan-Africanism, and the divinity of Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia. Howell’s teachings and the community he established attracted many followers who sought a spiritual and cultural movement that celebrated African heritage. Despite facing persecution and imprisonment by the colonial authorities, Howell’s influence continued to grow, laying the foundation for what would become a global movement with millions of followers around the world. Howell’s legacy as a pioneer of Rastafarianism remains significant in the history and culture of Jamaica and the wider African diaspora.

Marcus Garvey and his Prophecy in the Rastafari Movement

Pan-Africanism’s call for unity and self-determination among African nations and people of African descent played a significant role in the Rastafari movement’s early development. This ideology, emphasizing the shared history and destiny of Africans and their diaspora, was a natural fit for Rastafari, which sought to celebrate African heritage and reject the oppressive structures of colonialism. Pan-African ideals deeply influenced Rastafari culture, from its music and art to its social and political views, reinforcing a collective identity centered on African pride and empowerment.

The Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica, with its roots deeply entrenched in the teachings of Marcus Garvey, the symbol of Haile Selassie’s crowning, and the principles of Pan-Africanism, grew beyond its Jamaican origins. Today, it stands as a vibrant and influential cultural and religious movement, a testament to its enduring power and relevance in the global diaspora.

The year 1930 marked a pivotal moment for the burgeoning Rastafari movement with the coronation of Haile Selassie I in Ethiopia. This historic event was seen as the fulfillment of Garvey’s prophecy. To the Rastafarians, Emperor Haile Selassie, originally known as Ras Tafari Makonnen, was not just a political leader; he was the embodiment of their spiritual beliefs, a messianic figure symbolizing their hopes for redemption and a return to their African roots. His crowning became a cornerstone of Rastafari religious belief, profoundly shaping the movement’s identity and doctrines.

Subscribe to stay up-to-date with Ethiopia

Get the Free monthly newsletter

The Rastafarian movement Beliefs and Practices

The Fundamental Rastafarian movement Beliefs and Practices: What Do Rastafarians Believe?

A man wearing a hat, exuding a sense of style and confidence. His hat adds a touch of sophistication to his overall appearance. Rastafari Movement jamaica

Rastafarianism is more than a religion; it’s a way of life, deeply entrenched in the belief of the divinity of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia. Followers view him as the messianic figure who embodies the redemption and liberation of African people. Central to Rastafari beliefs is the idea of returning to Africa, the ancestral homeland, often referred to as Zion, contrasting with Babylon, which represents oppressive Western society. The movement also emphasizes the values of unity, peace, love, and respect for all living beings. Rastafarians advocate for social justice, equality, and resistance against oppression, reflecting their strong connections to Pan-African ideals and heritage.

The Importance of Dreadlocks in Rastafari Culture

A Rastafari man with dreadlocks and a beard, representing the cultural and religious beliefs of the Rastafari movement.

Dreadlocks are a prominent symbol in Rastafari culture, representing the natural state of human existence and a rejection of materialistic and superficial values. This hairstyle is inspired by the Nazarite vow described in the Old Testament, where cutting one’s hair is forbidden. For Rastas, dreadlocks are a sign of their vow to live a life dedicated to Jah and spiritual purity. They also symbolize the mane of the Lion of Judah, a representation of Haile Selassie and a symbol of strength and defiance against Babylon.

The Use of Marijuana in Rastafarian Traditions: Signifying the Role of 'Jah'

Marijuana, or ‘ganja’, holds a sacred place in Rastafari rituals and is used as a spiritual tool to meditate and achieve a closer connection with ‘Jah’ (God). Rastafarians believe that marijuana’s use cleanses the body, aids in meditation, and brings clarity to the mind. It’s often used during ‘Reasoning sessions’, gatherings where Rastas engage in deep discussions about life, spirituality, and community. These sessions facilitate a sense of brotherhood and spiritual bonding, reinforcing their commitment to understanding the deeper truths of life.

Rastafarian Diet and Lifestyle: The Vital Role of Ital Cooking

‘Ital’, the Rastafarian diet, plays a crucial role in their lifestyle, signifying purity, life, and a connection to the Earth. This diet is primarily vegetarian or vegan, emphasizing the consumption of foods in their most natural and unprocessed state. Avoiding alcohol, caffeine, and artificial additives is common, as these are seen as toxins that can pollute the body. The Ital diet aligns with Rastafarian principles of living in harmony with nature, promoting health, longevity, and spiritual clarity.

Haile Selassie, Ethiopia and its association with the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica

Who is Haile Selassie and Why is He Important to Rastafarians?

Haile Selassie, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. To Rastafarians, he is more than a historical figure; he is revered as a divine being, often referred to as Jah Rastafari. This veneration stems from the belief that he is the fulfillment of Biblical prophecies and the symbol of African sovereignty and redemption. His reign in Ethiopia is seen as a significant era, representing the resilience and independence of African people. For Rastafarians, Haile Selassie embodies their spiritual and cultural aspirations, making him a central figure in Rastafari ideology.

The Rastafarian Concept of Repatriation to Africa and Ethiopia

One of the core beliefs of Rastafarianism is the idea of repatriation, the return to Africa, specifically Ethiopia, which they consider their spiritual homeland. This concept is rooted in the desire to reconnect with their African roots and heritage, seeing Ethiopia as the promised land of Zion, in contrast to the oppressive Western society, or Babylon. Repatriation symbolizes a spiritual and physical journey to reclaim identity and heritage, a fundamental aspect of Rastafarian belief and aspiration, strengthened by their reverence for Ethiopia and Haile Selassie.

Prophecy Fulfilment: Ras Tafari Makonnen's Coronation in 1930

The coronation of Ras Tafari Makonnen as Emperor Haile Selassie I in 1930 was a pivotal moment for the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica. This event was seen as the fulfillment of Marcus Garvey’s prophecy, which spoke of a Black king being crowned in Africa who would be the redeemer. The coronation gave a significant boost to the Rastafari movement, as it was seen as a divine sign and a fulfillment of Biblical prophecy. This historical moment solidified the connection between the movement and Ethiopia, with Haile Selassie at its spiritual epicenter.


In summary, the Rastafarian Movement in Jamaica represents a profound amalgamation of spiritual beliefs, cultural practices, and a deep-rooted connection to Africa, especially Ethiopia. Revering Emperor Haile Selassie and drawing inspiration from Marcus Garvey’s teachings, the movement embodies a unique spiritual journey intertwined with the pursuit of social and political liberation. Its practices, from using marijuana in rituals to the symbolism of dreadlocks and the Ital diet, transcend Jamaican borders, resonating globally. This exploration of Rastafarianism highlights a resilient quest for identity, freedom, and unity, making it a compelling embodiment of cultural and spiritual richness that continues to inspire and influence worldwide.

Subscribe to stay up-to-date with Ethiopia

Get the Free monthly newsletter


Most frequent questions and answers

The Rastafari Movement, also known as Rastafarianism, is a religious and social movement that originated in Jamaica in the 1930s. Its followers, known as Rastafarians or Rastas, revere the former Ethiopian emperor, Ras Tafari Makonnen, later known as Emperor Haile Selassie, as the Black Messiah and manifestation of Jah (God). The movement was kick-started by Marcus Garvey, a significant pan-African advocate, whose prophecy “look to Africa where a black king shall be crowned, he shall be your Redeemer.” was fulfilled in the eyes of the movement’s followers when Haile Selassie ascended the throne in 1930.

In the Rastafari Movement, Ethiopia is considered Zion and the promised land for all people of African descent in the diaspora. This belief is rooted in the biblical prophecy, and this explains the great reverence Rastafarians have for the Ethiopian emperor, Haile Selassie. The agenda of repatriation to Africa, specifically to Ethiopia, has been a central theme in the Rastafari Movement.

The Rastafari Movement is known for its unique beliefs and practices. Central to these beliefs is the idea that Haile Selassie is a divine figure and that Africa (specifically Ethiopia) is the promised land. The use of marijuana in religious rituals is prominent, as Rastafarians believe it helps with meditation and spiritual enlightenment. They also typically adhere to a diet called “Ital,” which consists of natural and pure food.

The Rastafari Movement began in Jamaica, specifically amongst the Jamaican diaspora in the 1930s. The movement started as a response to the oppression suffered by Jamaicans of African descent under colonial rule. The ideologies of the Rastafari were heavily influenced by Marcus Garvey and his Universal Negro Improvement Association.

Haile Selassie, or Ras Tafari Makonnen as he was originally named, is a central figure in Rastafarianism. He was the Ethiopian Emperor who ascended the throne in 1930 and was seen as the fulfilment of a prophecy by Marcus Garvey who once said “Look to Africa where a black king shall be crowned”. Rastafarians regard Haile Selassie as the earthly embodiment of Jah, or God.

In Rastafarianism, Babylon is symbolic of oppressive institutions and societies that are seen as inherently corrupt. Babylon can represent Western or non-African governments, the police force or any organization that upholds what Rastafarians see as the unjust status quo.

A cheerful Hanan Akmel, a woman with curly hair, smiling brightly at the camera.
Hanan Akmel( SAAS SEO Specialist )

Meet Hanan Akmel, our SAAS SEO Specialist with a rich experience of 5 years in enhancing online presence for diverse clients. With a passion for digital landscapes and a keen eye for search engine trends, Hanan excels in crafting strategies that significantly boost search engine rankings and user engagement. Her expertise lies in seamlessly integrating technical SEO with content-driven approaches, ensuring a holistic growth for her clients’ digital footprint.

Leave a Reply